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Monday, December 06, 2004

Anderson Exam I

Fall 2004 Microbiology Lecture Exam I (w/answers)

The hypothesis that organelles such as mitochondria in eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic organisms, which were engulfed by primitive, nucleated cells is know as the ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY.

We cannot describe viruses as prokaryotes or eukaryotes because viruses ARE NOT CONSIDERED ALIVE.

Eukaryotic microorganisms include: PARASITES, PROTOZOA, FUNGI AND ALGAE.

The difference between Domain Archaea and Domain Bacteria is ONE HAS PEPTIDOGLYCAN IN ITS CELL WALL.

A eukaryote may be MULTICELLULAR OR UNICELLULAR, HAVE A TRUE NUCLEUS THAT IS MEMBRANE BOUND, ONE THAT HAS CHLOROPLAST AND/OR A MITOCHONDRIAN.

A ph of 2.1 is more acidic than a ph of 9.4 (View Scale)

Which type of lipid is most important in biological membranes? PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER

A sample from a hot thermal vent contained a single-celled organism that lacked a nucleus. What is the most likely classification? DOMAIN ARCHAEA

What are the two classifications of prokaryotes? DOMAIN BACTERIA AND ARCHAEA

The primary structure of a protein is: NUMBER AND SEQUENCE OF AMINO ACIDS

Pure water does not have the ability to: DISSOLVE LIPIDS

The macromolecules that are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio and are used as a quick energy source for many organisms are the CARBOHYDRATES

Weak bonds that are responsible for holding strands of DNA together are HYDROGEN BONDS

Lipids are THE SMALLEST MACROMOLECULES, COMPOSED OF FATTY ACIDS AND GLYCEROL SUBUNITS, EXTREMELY VERSATILE IN FORM AND FUNCTION, AND INSOLUBLE IN WATER.

The secondary structure of a protein IS CAUSED BY THE R-GROUP INTERACTIONS OF AMINO ACIDS AND CAN BE HELICAL OR PLEATED

DNA differs from RNA in that DNA has TWO STRANDS OF THYMINE AND DEOXYRIBOSE SUGAR

Phospholipids HAVE POLAR AND NONPOLAR ENDS AND ARE FOUND IN CELL MEMBRANES.

The six most commonly occurring elements in living organisms are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and OXYGEN.

Microbes are useful FOR NATURAL FLORA TO PROTECT AGAINST INFECTION, TO CLEAN UP HAZARDOUS SPILLS, TO MAKE FOODS, AND TO USE AS A CURE FOR SOME DISEASES.

Proper order of classification: DOMAIN, KINGDOM, PHYLUM, CLASS, ORDER, FAMILY, GENUS, SPECIES.

With regard to prions, THEY ARE WITHOUT DNA AND RNA.

The Gram stain is A DIFFERENTIAL STAIN AND A TEST FOR THE PRESENCE OF AVAILABLE PEPTIDOGLYCAN.

The process of building a macromolecule from smaller molecules involves DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS.

The equal sharing of electrons by two elements is COVALENT BONDING.

The weakest bond type is the HYDROGEN BOND.

The subatomic unit that dictates the behavior of an element is the ELECTRON

The two subatomic particles that are located inside the nucleus and account for the mass of an element are the PROTON AND NEUTRON.

Peptidoglycan IS A SUGAR COMPLEX FOUND IN THE CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE OF BACTERIA.

A disease that has plagued a population during the course of history, disappeared, and then came back again, is said to be A RE-EMERGENT DISEASE.

Trace elements, are necessary TO AID ENZYMATIC ACTIONS

You decide to fry an egg and when it hits the griddle, it turns white and hardens.
What has occurred? DENATURIZATION OF A PROTEIN.

What structural level has been altered? ALL LEVELS. HEAT BREAKS THE PEPTIDE BONDS BETWEEN THE AMINO ACIDS.

The bacteria Clostridium botulina produces an extracellular toxin that can be lethal to humans. With that in mind, you can deduce that THERE IS AN ABUNDANCE OF FREE RIBOSOMES IN THE CELL.

The shape of a microorganism can determine how effective an antibiotic can be IS TRUE.

If we did not have E. Coli in our intestines, we would surely die IS TRUE

The nucleotide bases are the same building blocks in our cells and in bacterial cells IS TRUE.

The warriors of Norway would ingest mushrooms, a fungus, shortly before rampaging a neighboring country. The secretions made them froth at the mouth and become aggressive. In three hours, uncontrollable diarrhea was produced.
What type of cell is a fungi? A EUKARYOTIC PROTOZOA

What organelle would likely be abundant in this organism? CELL WALLS.

Would this be a pathogenic organism? YES

A functional group is responsible for the behavior of an organic compound. TRUE

H.pylori is currently listed as the only known living carcinogen. TRUE

A chloroplast is A PHOTOSYNTHETIC ORGANELLE, WHERE SUGAR IS MADE FROM SOLAR E AND CO2, DOUBLE MEMBRANE BOUND, AND HAS A LOOP OF BACTERIAL DNA.

An endospore IS MOST RESISTANT LIFE FORM, A DORMANT FORM, ALLOWS INFECTION/DISEASE ONLY FROM A FEW BACTERIA, AND IS PRIMARILY FORMED BY CLOSTRIDIUM AND BACILLUS.

Buffering capacity is a life saver. TRUE

Prokaryotic cell:
cell wall- FORMS SHAPE OF THE CELL.
Ribosomes- FORM PROTEINS FOR THE CELL
Flagella- WHIP-LIKE EXTENSION USED FOR MOVEMENT
Nucleoid- CONTAINS ONE CHROMOSOME OF DNA

Eukaryotic cell:
Rough ER- PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
Smooth ER- LIPID SYNTHESIS AND TRANSPORT
Golgi Apparatus- PACKAGES PRODUCTS FOR SHIPMENT OUT OF CELL
Free Ribosomes- FORMS PROTEIN FOR THE CELL
Mitochondria- CELL’S ENERGY SOURCE
Cell membrane- FORMS SHAPE OF CELL AND IS POROUS.

Bacteria- PROKARYOTIC CELLS WITH CELL WALLS AND PEPTIDOGLYCAN.

Virus- INFECTIOUS ACELLULAR AGENTS WITH NUCLEIC ACID SURROUNDED BY A PROTEIN COAT CALLED A CAPSID.

Prions- INFECTIOUS PARTICLE THAT LACKS NUCLEIC ACIDS AND REPLICATES BY CONVERTING SIMILAR NORMAL PROTEINS INTO NEW PRIONS.

Fungi- EUKARYOTIC CELLS LACKING CELL WALLS AND CONTAIN NUCLEUS OF GENETIC MATERIAL SURROUNDED BY A MEMBRANE.

Protozoa- SINGLE-CELLED EUKARYOTES LACKING CELL WALLS AND NUTRITIONAL NEEDS AND STRUCTURE ARE SIMILAR TO ANIMALS.

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